Intersectionality highlights the interplay of social structures and human agency and thus allows for social change. The focus is often on the strategies of creative resistance that women employ to survive and thrive in oppressive situations rather than emphasizing women s powerlessness and dependency on men. Intersectionality scholars do not simply examine overt, public political activity, but focus on the less visible politicized activities that are taken up by subordinated groups.
An intersectionality perspective assumes that individuals lives are embedded within and affected by interlocking systems of inequalities based on race, gender, class, and sexuality. Individuals occupy multiple and often contradictory status positions that simultaneously advantage and disadvantage their lives. This ”matrix of domination, as described by Collins (2000), embraces a both/and model of inequalities rather than an additive model of inequalities or binary oppositions. Interlocking inequalities operate at a macro-level that refers to the connections between institutional and organizational structures of race, class, and gender and a micro-level that refers to how interactions between individuals and groups are shaped simultaneously by race, gender, and class structures. A woman s gendered experiences are always framed in the context of her racial and class locations. Using this multi-lens approach allows researchers to
An intersectionality framework emerged during the late 1980s with roots in socialist feminism, critical race and ethnic studies, and postcolonial feminisms. This evolving interdisciplinary body of theory and practice emphasizes the simultaneity of oppressions. Collins (2000: 18) asserts that ”oppression cannot be reduced to one fundamental type, and that oppressions work together in producing injustice. Within this framework ”there are no gender relations per se, but only gender relations as constructed by and between classes, races, and cultures (Harding 1991: 79). By focusing on how systems of inequality are cross-cutting this framework draws attention to differences among women (or among men) rather than simply differences between women and men. This tradition understands systems of oppression as grounded in relational power differentials. Men s domination is thus related to (and dependent upon) women s subordination and the status of poor women of color is related to (and dependent upon) the status of affluent white women. Baca Zinn and Thornton Dill (1996) identify five basic assertions common to intersectionality approaches: the conceptualization of gender and race as structures and not simply individual traits, the rejection of an a priori assumption that women constitute a unified category, the existence of interlocking systems of inequality and oppression, the recognition of the interplay of social structure and human agency, and the necessity for historically specific, local analyses to understand interlocking inequalities.
Professor of UCLA School of Law and Columbia Law School, first drew attention to the term ‘intersectionality’ in relation to race and gender theory in a 1989 article discussing the experiences of Black women in the United States. Crenshaw argues that intersectional analysis is a way to expand feminist and antiracist theory, both of which were unable to adequately address the experiences of Black women suffering from both sexual and racial discrimination. She contends that feminist theory and antiracist politics both exist on a single-axis framework which obscures or ignores the experiences of those at the intersection of race and sex. Treating racial and sexual discrimination as mutually exclusive, Crenshaw argues, leads to a problematic theoretical tendency to think of all women as white and all Blacks as men, thus erasing the experiences of those at the intersections.
Intersectionality and assignment Essay Example for Free
Intersectionality as an analytical tool is used to help understand multiple forms of oppression and encourages examination of how different systems of oppression intersect and affect groups of women in different ways. In addition, feminists argue that an understanding of intersectionality is a vital element to gaining political and social equality and improving our democratic system.
‘Intersectionality’ Academic Essay - Write My Essay
Describe how your race (hispanic), class (middle working class), and gender (female) impact your daily life. That is, explain how you believe the cumulative effects of race, class, and gender impacts your ability to access resources, whether they be health, education, monetary resources. Also explore how people interact or respond to you based on your intersectionality (mostly surrounded by college students and hispanic co-workers). This is an introspective essay.
"Intersectionality, on the other hand, describes 'the entanglement of identity categories that make up an individual, the differential attributions of power that result from such varied configurations, and the need to view intersectional beings holistically rather than try to tease apart different strands of identity'" (Hulko, 2009, as cited in Van Herk et al., 2011, p. 30).
The concept of intersectionality is mutating and …
Has intersectionality run its course? Write an essay that brings into conversation with each other several of the authors we’ve read whose work either contribute to the articulation of intersectionality as an analytic lens/sensibility or critiques the concept. Make a case for either retaining this lens, modifying it, or throwing it out altogether in favor of something new. (If you choose the third, be sure to specify an alternative)